Special Text Characters

If you want to use "special" characters like & © ½ you have to type a reference code in the HTML document or most browsers will not reproduce the correct character.

The most reliable way to insert special characters is to use decimal entity notation. Some characters have four methods of reference: named, decimal, hexadecimal, and UTF-8 (Unicode). The most universally understood form across browsers and platforms is decimal, but the named versions are likely to be easier to remember.

This is a list of some common special characters and their codes. All these codes start with an ampersand and end with a semi-colon. Note that because the ampersand is used to signal to the browser that what follows is a character code, the ampersand has its own code too!

Character Named Decimal Description

&

&

&

Ampersand

¢

¢

¢

Cent symbol

©

© ©

Copyright

°

°

°

Degree symbol

÷

÷

÷

Division sign

€

€

Euro symbol

½

½

½

Fraction, half

¼

¼

¼

Fraction, one quarter

¾

¾

¾

Fraction, three-quarters

>

>

>

Greater than

<

&lt;

&#60;

Less than

&minus;

&#8722;

Minus sign

×

&times;

&#215;

Multiplication sign

 

&nbsp;

&#160;

Non-breaking space (use to insert multiple spaces)

&para;

&#182;

Paragraph sign

±

&plusmn;

&#177;

Plus or minus

£

&pound;

&#163;

Pound sterling

"

&quot;

&#34;

Quote mark

®

&reg;

&#174;

Registered trademark

§

&sect;

&#167;

Section symbol

ß

&szlig;

&#223;

German sz

&trade;

#8482;

Trade Mark